Histoire de la Nouvelle-Orléans, Louisiane

Histoire de la Nouvelle-Orléans, Louisiane


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La Nouvelle-Orléans a été fondée par les Français en 1718 et nommée en l'honneur de Phillip, duc d'Orléans. Son emplacement en tant que grande ville la plus au sud du fleuve Mississippi a assuré son importance commerciale et, jusqu'à la fin de la guerre de Sécession, sa valeur militaire stratégique. La ville devient capitale de la Nouvelle-France en 1722. En 1763, le contrôle de la colonie passe à l'Espagne. Cependant, l'influence française, renforcée par l'arrivée en Louisiane d'Acadiens réfugiés du Canada, demeure plus forte que celle des Espagnols. En 1801, Napoléon a de nouveau acquis le territoire pour la France, mais en 1803, il a vendu l'ensemble du kit et du kaboodle aux États-Unis dans le cadre de l'achat de la Louisiane. Pendant la guerre de 1812, les Britanniques ont envoyé une force pour capturer la Nouvelle-Orléans, mais ont été vaincus par le général Andrew Jackson à la bataille de la Nouvelle-Orléans sur un site situé à environ cinq miles en aval de la ville. Les participants ne savaient pas que la guerre avait pris fin par le traité de Gand le mois précédent. Pendant la guerre, il a été capturé par les forces de l'Union avec peu de résistance et a ainsi épargné la destruction qu'une grande partie du Sud a subie. Dans les années qui ont suivi la guerre civile, la Nouvelle-Orléans a développé une culture à multiples facettes, incorporant des éléments anglophones et francophones ainsi que populations noires, blanches et métisses. Le célèbre quartier rouge de la ville était connu sous le nom de « Storyville ». En 1920, la Nouvelle-Orléans avait développé un système de pompage qui retirait l'eau de la ville et la pompait dans des canaux qui se jetaient dans le lac Pontchartrain. Cela a permis une grande expansion de la zone de la ville, mais malheureusement, le processus a entraîné un affaissement de la surface et une grande partie de la ville est maintenant à plusieurs pieds sous le niveau de la mer. Les eaux du Mississippi et du lac Pontchartrain sont maintenues à l'écart par un système de digues, mais cette protection s'est révélée insuffisante par l'arrivée de l'ouragan Katrina en août 2005, qui a entraîné l'inondation de la majeure partie de la ville.


Histoire de la Nouvelle-Orléans, Louisiane - Histoire

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Histoire de la paroisse d'Orléans

La ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans et la paroisse d'Orléans coïncident.
La Nouvelle-Orléans est située dans le sud-est de la Louisiane, à cheval sur le fleuve Mississippi.

Fondée le 7 mai 1718 par la French Mississippi Company, sous la direction de Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, sur des terres habitées par les Chitimacha.
Il porte le nom de Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans, alors régent du royaume de France.
La Nouvelle-Orléans a été cédée à l'Empire espagnol dans le traité de Paris en 1763, restant sous contrôle espagnol jusqu'en 1801, date à laquelle elle est brièvement revenue aux Français jusqu'à ce que Napoléon vende la Louisiane aux États-Unis lors de l'achat de la Louisiane en 1803.

Après l'achat de la Louisiane, de nombreux Anglo-Américains ont migré vers la ville. La population de la ville a doublé dans les années 1830 et en 1840, la Nouvelle-Orléans était devenue la ville la plus riche et la troisième plus peuplée du pays. Un grand nombre d'immigrants allemands et irlandais ont commencé à arriver dans les années 1840, travaillant comme ouvriers dans le port très fréquenté. Au cours de cette période, la législature de l'État a adopté plus de restrictions sur les affranchissements d'esclaves et y a pratiquement mis fin en 1852.
La croissance démographique a été fréquemment interrompue par des épidémies de fièvre jaune, dont la dernière a eu lieu en 1905.
Les principales cultures de base de sucre et de coton étaient cultivées avec des esclaves dans de grandes plantations à l'extérieur de la ville.

Le champ de bataille et le cimetière national de Chalmette, situés juste au sud de la ville, sont le site de la bataille de la Nouvelle-Orléans en 1815.

Presque toute l'architecture survivante du XVIIIe siècle du quartier français date de la période espagnole, l'exception la plus notable étant l'ancien couvent des Ursulines. Le quartier français est délimité par le fleuve Mississippi, Ram part Street, Canal Street et Esplanade Avenue.
Canal Street sert de point de division entre les portions "Sud" et "Nord" de diverses rues. Dans le langage local, "downtown" signifie " en aval de Canal Street", tandis que "uptown" signifie "upriver de Canal Street".
Les quartiers du centre-ville comprennent le quartier français, Tremé, le 7th Ward, le Faubourg Marigny, Bywater (le Upper Ninth Ward) et le Lower Ninth Ward. Les quartiers chics comprennent le Warehouse District, le Lower Garden District, le Garden District, la Manche irlandaise, le University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau et Broadmoor. Cependant, l'entrepôt et le quartier central des affaires, bien qu'ils soient au-dessus de Canal Street, sont souvent appelés « Downtown » en tant que région spécifique, comme dans le Downtown Development District.


Paysage

La ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans et la paroisse d'Orléans (comté) sont coextensives, occupant un point à la tête du delta du fleuve Mississippi dans le golfe du Mexique. Les limites sont formées par le fleuve Mississippi et la paroisse de Jefferson à l'ouest et le lac Pontchartrain au nord. Le lac Pontchartrain est relié par le canal Rigolets au lac Borgne à l'est (et de là au golfe), et la limite sud de la Nouvelle-Orléans est composée de la paroisse Saint-Bernard et, encore une fois, du fleuve Mississippi. La ville est divisée par le Mississippi, avec le règlement principal sur la rive est. La Cisjordanie, connue sous le nom d'Alger, s'est développée rapidement. Il est relié à l'est de la Nouvelle-Orléans par le Greater New Orleans Bridge (également connu sous le nom de Crescent City Connection). Le pont, achevé en 1958, s'est avéré être un goulot d'étranglement pour le trafic de la ville. Un deuxième pont adjacent conçu pour réduire la congestion a été achevé en 1988.

La première ville était située sur la rive est, le long d'un virage serré du Mississippi, d'où le surnom de "Crescent City". La métropole moderne s'est étendue bien au-delà de cet emplacement d'origine. Parce que son terrain en forme de soucoupe se situe aussi bas que 5 à 10 pieds (1,5 à 3 mètres) au-dessous du niveau de la mer et a une pluviométrie moyenne de 57 pouces (1 448 mm), un système de digue, ou un remblai, et un bon drainage ont toujours été de première importance. On craignait depuis longtemps qu'une puissante tempête n'inonde la ville de basse altitude. Un tel événement s'est produit en 2005, lorsque l'ouragan Katrina a produit une onde de tempête qui a submergé les digues protégeant la Nouvelle-Orléans, et environ les quatre cinquièmes de la ville ont été inondés. Moins d'un mois plus tard, un deuxième ouragan passant à l'ouest a de nouveau fait rompre certaines digues, inondant à nouveau quelques quartiers de la ville.


Avec l'achat de la Louisiane en 1803, les Américains sont venus. Ces nouveaux arrivants à la Nouvelle-Orléans étaient considérés par les créoles français et espagnols comme des gens grossiers et incultes de classe inférieure et incultes qui n'étaient pas adaptés à la haute société des créoles. Bien que les créoles aient été contraints de faire des affaires avec les Américains, ils ne voulaient pas d'eux dans la vieille ville. Canal Street a été construit en amont du quartier français pour empêcher les Américains d'entrer. Ainsi, aujourd'hui, lorsque vous traversez Canal Street, remarquez que toutes les anciennes "Rues" se transforment en "Rues" avec des noms différents. C'est dans la section que roulent les vieux tramways.

À la fin du XVIIIe siècle, une révolte à Saint-Domingue (Haïti) amène de nombreux réfugiés et immigrants en Louisiane. Ils étaient des artisans qualifiés, bien éduqués et ont fait leur marque dans la politique et les affaires. L'un de ces nouveaux arrivants à succès était James Pitot, qui devint plus tard le premier maire de la Nouvelle-Orléans constituée en société.


En 1847, lorsque la guerre du Mexique éclata, la Nouvelle-Orléans était le premier centre hippique des États-Unis. La ville comptait quatre voies, trois du côté est et une autre de l'autre côté de la rivière. Il s'agissait de la Métairie, de l'Eclipse, de l'Union et du Bingaman, et les journaux donnaient à peu près la même couverture des faits sur les rails que de la guerre avec le Mexique. Le premier hippodrome a été aménagé en 1820 par F’rancois Livaudais sur sa Live Oak Plantation, qui se trouvait près de l'intersection des avenues Saint-Charles et Washington. Livaudais a invité ses amis à assister à des matchs informels et à des courses. Puis suivit le Jackson Course en 1825, établi à quelques kilomètres au-dessous de la ville,
et, en 1837, l'Eclipse Track, occupant une partie du site du parc Audubon, a été aménagé. L'année suivante a vu le début de la Metairie Race Track vu ici lors de la réunion de printemps. À partir de Frank Leslie&# 8217s Journal illustré, le 4 mai 1872.

L'entrée principale de l'hippodrome de la Métairie. En 1853, le Metairie Jockey Club est fondé. Cette organisation exclusive a repris la gestion de la piste, a construit une tribune massive, et bientôt le parcours de la Métairie est devenu un sanctuaire pour les pur-sang exceptionnels de l'époque, ainsi qu'une Mecque pour les cavaliers de tous les États-Unis. Les dix années qui précédèrent la guerre de Sécession furent une décennie formant l'une des pages les plus glorieuses des annales du gazon américain, et durant cette période, Metairie atteignit toute sa gloire. Des foules dépassant les vingt mille remplissaient les tribunes et bordaient les rails. À partir du journal illustré de Frank Leslie, 18 décembre 1869.

Le coureur Lexington, qui a fourni certaines des courses les plus mémorables à la piste Metairie dans les passionnants concours Lexington-Lecompte en 1854 et 1855. Lecompte, poulain et élevé en Louisiane, a remporté le premier concours le 8 avril 1854. Les courses ont été pour quatre milles, et Lecompte, terminant en 7:26, a amélioré le temps record de Fashion sur la piste de Long Island en 1842. Le 2 avril 1855, Lexington, courant contre la montre, a couru les quatre milles en 7:19%, améliorant Record de Lecompte de 6 1/4 secondes. Dans une course avec Lecompte le 14 avril, Lexington s'est imposé facilement en 7 :23%, et ce concours a probablement suscité autant d'intérêt à l'époque que la célèbre course de bateaux à vapeur entre le Rob’t E. Lee et les Natchez en 1870.

Life on the Metairie-The Metairie Race Course, tableau de Victor Pierson et Theodore S. Moise, 1867. Parmi les soixante personnalités représentées sur ce tableau pour le Metairie Jockey Club figure le général P. G. T. Beauregard. La piste de la Métairie avait été fermée pendant la durée de la guerre de Sécession, rouverte en 1866. Mais ce n'était pas la même Métairie. L'ancien Jockey Club de la Métairie s'était désintégré, et les troubles de la reconstruction et les querelles dans les rangs de la direction ont forcé les propriétaires à vendre. En 1872, un groupe d'hommes d'affaires achète la piste et transforme le site en cimetière de la Métairie. qui deviendra avec le temps l'un des lieux de sépulture les plus remarquables des États-Unis. Avec l'aimable autorisation de Fair Grounds Corporation

En 1872, le Louisiana Jockey Club, un nouveau groupe, a repris l'ancien hippodrome créole (l'actuel Parc des Expositions qui tire son nom des foires que l'Association de mécanique et d'agriculture y a tenues après la guerre). Le Louisiana Jockey Club a également acheté le manoir Luling adjacent sur Esplanade pour servir de club-house, montré ici, et il est toujours debout. Le domaine avec une façade de 500 pieds et une profondeur de 2 500 pieds avec ses jardins fleuris et ses vergers était l'un des plus impressionnants de la ville. L'organisation a construit une nouvelle tribune et a commencé ses opérations avec une course inaugurale de six jours en avril 1872. De Jewell’s Crescent City Illustrated, 1873

Réunion de printemps du Louisiana Jockey Club, croquis ci-dessus par Ph. G. Cusachs. Limitant ses membres à quatre cents, le club comprenait les citoyens les plus riches et les plus éminents de la ville. L'élite se réunissait au Parc des Expositions pour les courses mais aussi pour les concerts, les exercices, les tournois et les fêtes champêtres. Extrait du New York Daily Graphic, 24 avril 1874

Journée des dames aux courses. Une section spéciale des stands a été désignée « coin beauté » et était réservée exclusivement au beau sexe. La piste de Fair Grounds a eu une histoire mouvementée. Un nouveau club de jockey a été créé en 1880, un autre, le Crescent City Jockey Club, a été fondé en 1892, qui a dirigé le parc des expositions jusqu'en 1908 et quelque part le long de la ligne, le manoir-club-house de Luling a été perdu. En 1905, la compétition sous la forme de l'hippodrome de City Park s'est développée avec pour résultat qu'il y avait littéralement trop de courses. En 1908, la législature de la Louisiane a aboli le sport.

Fin du handicap, Crescent City Jockey Club, 1906. En 1915, les courses étaient à nouveau légales et le parc des expositions a rouvert sous les auspices de la Business Men’s Racing Association. En 1918, la tribune a complètement brûlé et elle a été reconstruite dans le temps presque miraculeux d'environ soixante-douze heures pour être prête pour l'ouverture de la saison le jour du Nouvel An. Des changements de direction ont eu lieu à nouveau en 1926, en 1934 et en 1940, lorsque la très réussie Fair ,Grounds Corporation a été organisée. Le parc des expositions et les courses de chevaux font partie intégrante de la scène de la Nouvelle-Orléans et ce depuis trois quarts de siècle.

Pour un examen actuel du parc des expositions de la Nouvelle-Orléans, lisez la liste des attractions de l'hôtel Monteleone.

Message : Bonjour, je recherche la famille KENT de Kentwood La. Je suis apparenté à eux. Ma famille de 8 6 enfants. Et 2 je beieve des chiens. a dû rester dans une très vieille ferme So Cold là-bas au milieu ou à la fin des années 60. Le nom de jeune fille de ma mère était GREY. Apprécierait grandement toute aide s'il vous plaît.
Merci,
Kelly S. Sizemore.

Message : J'ai vu le Jockey club pour le premier iem cette semaine. J'étais ici depuis plus de 50 ans et je ne l'avais pas vu. Merci pour l'info.

Message : JE NE PEUX PAS ATTENDRE DE RETOURNER À LA MAISON POUR EN VOIR PLUS.

Un message:
Quelle est l'histoire des courses de chevaux à Thanksgiving?

Message:Je pose des questions sur une course de pile qui a eu lieu l'année 1975 & 82121977. Le cheval s'appelait Flint Flash les propriétaires étaient Gene et Gloria l'entraîneur était Edgar Hamilton le marié était Helen Singleton ma sœur décédée (1988) Je pense que le jockey était Roger Cocks

Flint Flash était une race de Louisiane qui a terminé 3e au Crescent City Derby en 󈨐. Il y avait à l'époque un jockey nommé Roger Cox qui était probablement le jockey auquel vous pensez. Flint Flash a dû être revendiqué car ses dernières courses se sont déroulées en Pennsylvanie et appartenaient à un Samuel Webb.

J'aimerais savoir où se trouvait l'hippodrome dans City Park.

Message : Où puis-je trouver des informations sur les jockeys qui montaient au parc des expositions dans les années 30 ?

Message : Je suis en possession de 3 programmes de course en soie du Crescent City Jockey Club datés de 1899. État neuf, encadré et scellé. Je sais qu'un collectionneur ou un musée trouverait cela intéressant. Je n'ai trouvé qu'une photo d'un de ces programmes à la bibliothèque NO. Je pensais juste que je mettrais ça là-bas pour tous ceux qui s'intéressent au patrimoine. Merci,

Je recherche des informations sur mon grand-père Alvin [Tuck] Fraley. Il a reçu le surnom de Tuck à cause de sa façon de rouler. il était jockey à la Nouvelle-Orléans.. toute information serait géniale. merci, valena fraley walters

Message : Je cherche des informations sur mon grand-père qui vivait dans la grange 53 en 1946, aurait été entraîneur de chevaux et avant cela un toiletteur. Quelqu'un sait où je pourrais trouver l'info ? Son nom était James Potter. Merci Jeanne


Le mouvement des droits civiques

De nombreux événements qui ont contribué au mouvement des droits civiques ont eu lieu dans la ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans. Dans les années 1950, la ségrégation était en vigueur dans toute la ville. Selon la Global Nonviolent Action Database, la population noire de la ville était de 40 %. Tous les magasins appartenant à des Blancs sur Canal Street avaient des installations séparées et ne servaient pas de Noirs aux comptoirs-repas, tandis que Dryades Street était une zone commerçante à prédominance noire, bien que les Afro-Américains n'aient pas été autorisés à travailler réellement dans les magasins. GNAD rapporte que « vers la fin de 1959, le révérend Avery Alexander… et le Dr Henry Mitchell ont organisé la Consumers’ League of Greater New Orleans, une organisation entièrement noire, pour lutter contre la discrimination dans l’emploi. Les sit-in, les boycotts et les arrestations se sont poursuivis, aboutissant à une marche pour la liberté en 1963. Lentement, les installations publiques ont été désagrégées.


Points d'interêts

Aujourd'hui, entouré de bâtiments historiques, dont la cathédrale Saint-Louis, le presbytère et les musées d'État de Louisiane, ainsi qu'un mélange de propriétés commerciales et résidentielles, Jackson Square est l'une des destinations les plus populaires du quartier français. Les principaux emplacements autour de la place comprennent les bâtiments Pontalba des années 1940 (les plus anciens appartements loués en continu en Amérique du Nord), le bâtiment Jax Brewery (la maison d'origine d'une bière locale préférée - maintenant un centre commercial rempli de restaurants et de boutiques spécialisées), le célèbre Café du Monde (qui sert du café au lait brassé à la chicorée et des beignets depuis l'époque de la guerre de Sécession) et le marché français (à l'origine un poste de traite amérindien).


L'archidiocèse de la Nouvelle-Orléans : une brève histoire

Érigé en 1793, et à l'origine connu sous le nom de diocèse de Louisiane et des Florides, l'archidiocèse de la Nouvelle-Orléans était une création conjointe du roi d'Espagne et du pape. Ayant des racines dans les royaumes catholiques d'Espagne et de France, l'archidiocèse a une histoire distincte, contrairement aux diocèses établis dans les traditions anglaise et protestante de la côte est. Après l'achat de la Louisiane en 1803, la Nouvelle-Orléans est devenue un diocèse « américain », mais les traditions et les pratiques ont mis plus d'un siècle à changer complètement.

Les débuts de l'histoire de l'Église catholique de Louisiane ne peuvent être séparés du début de la période coloniale de la Louisiane. Faisant partie des empires coloniaux de France et d'Espagne, les colons de la Louisiane devaient être catholiques s'ils voulaient être des sujets fidèles. Même le Code Noir, la loi française qui régissait le traitement des esclaves, exigeait que les esclaves soient instruits et baptisés dans la foi catholique, libérés du travail le dimanche et traités avec humanité. Comme l'a écrit le Dr Charles Nolan, "les premiers habitants de cette région auraient trouvé notre distinction entre les questions politiques et religieuses étrange et inintelligible. La guerre, un contrat d'affaires ou de mariage et une cérémonie de baptême étaient à la fois sacrés et laïques."

Le diocèse englobait à l'origine tout le territoire de la Louisiane, du golfe du Mexique à la frontière canadienne, ainsi que la péninsule de Floride et la côte du golfe. Aujourd'hui, il y a 57 diocèses sur le territoire qui était autrefois le diocèse de Louisiane et des Florides. Nous ne sommes qu'une fraction de ce territoire englobant 4208 miles carrés, 8 paroisses civiles (comtés), 108 paroisses, 10 missions ou quasi-paroisses et 2 ministères de campus.

Depuis plus de 221 ans, de Mgr Peñalver y Cardenas, premier évêque de la diocèse à Mgr Gregory Aymond, le quatorzième archevêque, une population multiethnique de fidèles, de membres du clergé et de religieux, ont préservé et nourri la foi en créant des paroisses, des écoles, des orphelinats, des hôpitaux et d'autres institutions nécessaires. Nous avons reconstruit des communautés et des églises après des inondations, des tornades, des ouragans, des incendies, des guerres et des épidémies. Cette population fidèle était composée de Français, d'Espagnols, d'Irlandais, d'Allemands, d'Acadiens, d'Insulaires des Canaries, d'Amérindiens, d'esclaves, de personnes libres de couleur, d'Italiens, de Hongrois, de Cubains, de Vietnamiens et, bien sûr, d'Américains.

Dans son besoin toujours pressant d'apporter l'Évangile à son peuple, l'archidiocèse de la Nouvelle-Orléans a organisé des missions dans de nombreuses villes et communautés rurales. Les prêtres de la mission ont voyagé à cheval et en buggy pour répandre la Bonne Nouvelle. Des moyens uniques d'apporter «l'église» aux gens comprenaient la voiture de la chapelle «St. Paul » et un bateau-chapelle « Our Lady Star of the Sea ».

Les religieuses ont joué un rôle important avec leur contribution à la Louisiane catholique. En 1727, les Ursulines arrivèrent à exercer leur ministère à l'Hôpital Royal français et à l'éducation formelle des jeunes filles et femmes. Dans la première moitié du 19ème siècle, plus de communautés religieuses ont été recrutées pour servir en Louisiane : les Filles de la Charité, les Sœurs du Mont Carmel, les Sœurs des écoles de Notre-Dame, les Sœurs de Saint-Joseph, les Sœurs du Bon Pasteur et les Sœurs Dominicaines. . Ils ont éduqué des filles et des garçons, des jeunes femmes et des hommes de tous horizons, riches et pauvres, esclaves et libres. Ils soignaient les malades et réconfortaient les mourants.

À distance de marche du quartier français et à proximité, il y a 5 églises (Saint-Augustin, Notre-Dame de Guadalupe, Immaculée Conception, Sainte-Marie et la cathédrale). On y trouve le plus ancien cimetière : Saint-Louis #1 et le Musée du Vieux Couvent des Ursulines. La cathédrale Saint-Louis et le musée du vieux couvent des Ursulines font partie du Centre du patrimoine culturel catholique. L'ancien couvent des Ursulines, construit en 1752/3, est la plus ancienne structure de la vallée du Mississippi. Epargné de l'incendie de 1788 qui a détruit la majeure partie du quartier français, le bâtiment est l'un des seuls exemples d'architecture française encore existant dans le quartier. Le bâtiment a été utilisé comme couvent, évêché, école, lieu de réunion pour la législature, archives et maintenant un musée.

La cathédrale Saint-Louis est le symbole emblématique de la ville et c'est la plus ancienne cathédrale continue du pays. Les sols de l'allée centrale ont été conçus et installés par un homme de couleur libre. Les vitraux racontent l'histoire de la vie de Saint-Louis. Des portraits d'évêques et d'archevêques ornent le plafond. La salle de prière qui se trouve juste à côté de l'entrée est dédiée à Henriette Delille, une femme de couleur libre, qui a fondé les Sœurs de la Sainte Famille. Le 2 mars 2010, la Congrégation du Vatican pour la cause des saints a voté à l'unanimité pour approuver une déclaration selon laquelle la Servante de Dieu Henriette Delille a pratiqué la « vertu héroïque » pendant son ministère auprès des esclaves et des Afro-Américains. Cela la rapproche un peu plus de la béatification.

Mais ce qui rend vraiment nos traditions et nos célébrations uniques, ce sont les liens avec notre identité catholique. La saison du Mardi Gras ou Carnaval commence le 6 janvier, jour de l'Epiphanie ou du Jour des Rois. Nous commençons par King Cakes et à l'intérieur du gâteau se trouve un bébé qui représente l'enfant Jésus. Notre saison du Mardi Gras se termine à minuit avec le Mercredi des Cendres, le début de la saison du Carême. Nous sommes tellement liés à nos traditions que même notre équipe nationale de football a été formée le 1er novembre 1966, jour de la Toussaint, et a été nommée les Saints. Alors pendant que vous êtes ici en visite, absorbez la culture, profitez de la musique, appréciez la nourriture et surtout observez les richesses de notre foi qui sont entrelacées dans le tissu de la Nouvelle-Orléans.


Marcher sur la plus vieille route de la Nouvelle-Orléans

La Nouvelle-Orléans est une ville ancienne. Trois cents ans après son installation coloniale, même un récit de l'histoire datant de cette colonie doit reconnaître ce fait. Il s'avère que les Français n'ont pas donné une idée nouvelle de construire une ville dans le marais sur le paysage autant qu'ils ont imposé leur idée de ce qu'une ville devrait être sur un réseau complexe de nations et de villages autochtones. La clé de la colonisation de la Nouvelle-Orléans est un chemin, formé il y a 4 300 ans et utilisé par les populations autochtones de la région, connu aujourd'hui sous le nom de Bayou Road.

Parcourir le fleuve Mississippi pour atteindre son embouchure pouvait s'avérer une entreprise infructueuse lorsque ses eaux étaient basses, provoquant parfois le blocage des bateaux jusqu'à ce que les eaux remontent. Les peuples autochtones ont été les premiers à trouver un moyen d'éviter cela, naviguant depuis d'autres parties de la côte du golfe et du lac Pontchartrain via la connexion à Bayou St John, déchargeant leurs marchandises au début historique de Bayou Road et les accompagnant jusqu'à la rivière. dans ce qui est maintenant le quartier français. Sans cette étroite crête de terre ferme surélevée à « Balbancha » (le nom Mobilian/Choctaw de la Nouvelle-Orléans), menant au fleuve Mississippi, la ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans n'aurait peut-être jamais existé.

Les origines de la route du Bayou

Bayou Road est la plus ancienne route de la ville et parmi les plus anciennes du pays. Lieu d'évolution démographique rapide et de nouveaux développements, il a su conserver son sentiment d'intemporalité et son caractère de carrefour multiethnique de cultures et d'esthétiques. Parcourir son chemin, à la fois historique et moderne, à travers les sixième et septième quartiers de la Nouvelle-Orléans transporte à la fois le natif de la Nouvelle-Orléans et le visiteur entre l'histoire et le présent.

L'historique Bayou Road commence au coin des rues Bell et Moss. Le Vieux Portage est maintenant marqué d'une pancarte historique indiquant son importance aux débuts de la ville antique et coloniale. Des lettres de Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d'autres explorateurs français décrivent les maisons rondes en forme de dôme des peuples autochtones, avec leurs lucarnes fermables et leurs toits de chaume, qui occupaient les bayous de la Louisiane. Du verbe français « transporter », le portage marque l'endroit où les peuples autochtones déchargeaient leur cargaison des bateaux qu'ils avaient navigués depuis le lac Pontchartrain et à travers le bayou qui reste aujourd'hui les lagunes fragmentées de City Park. De là, il serait possible de traverser le marais jusqu'au fleuve Mississippi sur une crête de terre légèrement surélevée.

Près du portage se dresse l'ancienne douane espagnole. Il est généralement admis que la "maison des douanes" est la résidence la plus ancienne de la ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans datant de 1784, c'est l'une des rares structures de la ville à avoir survécu à l'incendie du vendredi saint en 1788. la Pitot House, construite en 1799 et abritant le deuxième maire de la Nouvelle-Orléans, James Pitot. Ces deux bâtiments, avec leurs colonnes et leurs galeries aérées, sont typiques du style architectural créole français que l'on trouve dans les Caraïbes à cette époque.

Les petits matins près du portage sont particulièrement recommandés. En regardant occasionnellement le pélican voler le long du Bayou St. John, on se rappelle à quel point cette voie navigable est plus ancienne que tout ce qui l'entoure.

Culture et commerce

L'enseigne de Positive Vibrations Culture Shop, une entreprise fermée depuis l'ouragan Katrina, reste, pour l'instant, au coin de North Broad Street et de Bayou Road. L'incarnation moderne de la rue est une courtepointe de la Nouvelle-Orléans avant et après Katrina, créant une énergie et un dynamisme uniques. L'aile commerciale de Bayou Road abrite plusieurs entreprises appartenant à des Noirs, conformément à l'histoire de la route en tant que centre d'échange commercial noir et autochtone.

Cette zone de Bayou Road moderne offre, en plus du shopping et de l'architecture, plusieurs options pour la nourriture et les boissons, y compris Pirogues, Coco Hut, Half Shell on the Bayou et Pagoda Café, un petit bâtiment en forme de pagode offrant des sièges en plein air dans la fourche à Bayou Route.

Boutique Culture Vibrations Positives

Cabane d'enregistrement sonore Domino

Cabane d'enregistrement sonore Domino : Un petit magasin avec un large choix de disques. Ses sections punk et internationales sont particulièrement cool, qui incluent des disques du Niger, d'Éthiopie, d'Irak et plus encore. La plupart des disques coûtent moins de 50 $. 2557 Bayou Road, La Nouvelle-Orléans, LA, 70119

Centre de lecture communautaire : La dernière librairie appartenant à des Noirs de la ville, le Community Book Center est un centre culturel pour la communauté. Plus qu'une librairie traditionnelle, c'est un espace de rassemblement et d'événement pour les amis, les voisins, les visiteurs et les écrivains. Il présente une grande peinture murale de l'artiste local Brandan Odums sur sa façade, une ode au principe Kwanzaa de ujamaa, ou économie coopérative. 2523 Bayou Road, La Nouvelle-Orléans, LA, 70119

Durée de vie matérielle : Material Life est une boutique de style de vie, proposant des articles vintage et nouveaux, notamment des livres, des vêtements, des articles ménagers, de la décoration intérieure, des produits de beauté, etc., centré sur les cultures noires américaines et diasporiques noires. 2521 Bayou Road, La Nouvelle-Orléans, LA, 70119

Club Caraïbes : Situé bien en vue à la fourche de Bayou Road, ce club est un favori local depuis des années, accueillant des soirées dansantes hebdomadaires, des concerts et des vendeurs extérieurs. 2441 Bayou Road, La Nouvelle-Orléans, LA, 70119

Esprit et Esthétique

À mi-chemin du fleuve Mississippi, à un embranchement de Bayou Road, des éléments du passé, du présent et du futur sont visibles de tous les points de vue. Près du quartier de Treme, le plus ancien quartier afro-américain existant aux États-Unis, Bayou Road est important pour l'histoire des peuples noirs et autres peuples d'origine africaine. Une grande partie des terres le long de Bayou Road, en particulier à Treme, appartenait au gens de couleur libre, ou des personnes de couleur libres. Les signatures architecturales de la rue, les cottages créoles et les ferronneries ornées, sont l'œuvre d'artisans qualifiés de ces communautés historiques.

Église Sainte-Rose de Lima: Établie en tant que paroisse en 1857, la structure d'origine a brûlé en 1913. Le bâtiment actuel de style Tudor, érigé en 1914, sera le nouveau siège du Bayou Treme Center for Arts & Education, qui devrait ouvrir cette année ou l'année prochaine. . Le complexe religieux de trois bâtiments abritera à la fois le Southern Rep Theatre et la Waldorf School of New Orleans. 2527 Bayou Road, La Nouvelle-Orléans, LA, 70119

Centre Joan Mitchell/Indigo : The Joan Mitchell Center is an artist residency established by the Joan Mitchell Foundation. Located on the site of a former indigo plantation, the main house structure dates to around 1800 and was originally owned by Domino Fleitas of the Canary Islands. Built in the style that dominated the Creole West Indies, the house features spindle colonnades and airy galleries. Indigo dye was one of colonial Louisiana’s most valuable exports, but dye production was a dangerous and labor-intensive process: The average lifespan of an enslaved indigo worker was only five to seven years. 2275 Bayou Road, New Orleans, LA, 70119

Joan Mitchell Center/Indigo

St. Rose de Lima Church Photography by Allison Beondé

“Shotgun Temple”: This open-air sculpture by Robert Tannen stands in the triangular neutral ground at the fork in Bayou Road, at the street’s commercial center. The inside of the temple, built in 1980, is covered in murals depicting sacred symbols and figures from the Rastafarian religion.

Benachi House: Completed in 1859. The original owner of this home was a Greek immigrant who helped establish the first Greek Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere. 2257 Bayou Road, New Orleans, LA, 70119

“Peace, the Genius of History”: In 1884, one-third of the world’s cotton passed through New Orleans. One of several “peace” monuments in the South representing reconciliation between North and South post-Civil War, this statue is located in a space known as Gayarré Place. Originally erected for the 1884 World’s Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, it brings to mind the labor, then and now, of the black community that surrounds it. Esplanade Avenue at Bayou Road

Continuing down its historical pathway through the Treme neighborhood, Bayou Road becomes, from North Claiborne to the river, Governor Nicholls Street. The city of New Orleans recently received an $820,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Commerce aimed at creating a green marketplace and community spaces along the 19-block Claiborne Corridor. The area spanning from Canal Street to St. Bernard was at one time the tree-lined center of black commerce, before the I-10 overpass was constructed through it in the late 1960s.

A longtime center of trade and exchange, the space today known as the French Market takes its inspiration from the African and Native merchants who sold their wares on the river and in this corridor leading to it. “The original, Native name, in Mobilian/Choctaw, for New Orleans, ‘Balbancha,’ that’s the true heart of things,” says Jeffery Darensbourg, tribal councilperson representing the Alligator Band of the Atakapa-Ishak Nation, during a conversation about Bayou Road. It means “‘The place of many languages,’” he explains. “It was a place with as many as eight language groups. A place where people were constantly passing through. A place of dynamic cultural interaction.”

Bayou Road and the neighborhoods that surround it have seen many changes in their centuries of history. How the descendants of those who made the road will fare in this next round of change remains to be seen. For now, the work of their ancestors’ hands and minds remains.

End of the Road

Backstreet Cultural Museum

St. Augustine Church: Founded in 1841, the church is the oldest African-American Catholic Church in the nation. A large iron cross made up of chains and shackles called “The Tomb of the Unknown Slave” stands on its property to honor those who died during slavery. 1210 Governor Nicholls Street, New Orleans, LA, 70116 (end of historic Bayou Road pathway leading to the French Quarter and Mississippi River)

Backstreet Cultural Museum: A museum dedicated to the traditions of “backstreet” New Orleans culture. The museum houses the largest collection of Black Masking Indian suits in the country, as well as historic photography and film of second-line parades and jazz funerals. 1116 Henriette Delille Street, New Orleans, LA, 70116


History of Jazz Music

New Orleans is the birthplace of jazz. That used to be debated by folks arguing in favor of hubs of the genre such as New York and Chicago. The discussion quieted after the publication of In Search of Buddy Bolden: First Man of Jazz. Historian Don Marquis’ book documents the life of the New Orleans native trumpeter (1877-1931), and also offers glimpses of the times and his remarkable sound. The Bolden family house still stands at 2309 First Street.

Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941) would undoubtedly have disputed the book’s title, as the New Orleans pianist often proclaimed he invented jazz. Morton, known almost as much for his arrogant demeanor as his impressive body of work, was certainly pivotal in jazz’s creation, particularly as a composer and arranger. While Bolden gained his reputation in the Crescent City, Morton rose from playing ragtime piano in brothels in New Orleans’ Storyville District (shut down in 1917 and demolished in the 1930s) to achieving international fame.

Many jazz artists, including now luminary figures such as cornetist Joe “King” Oliver (1885-1938), took the music north in search of more lucrative environs. New Orleans’ most famous musician, the renowned trumpeter and vocalist Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong, took it a step further and made jazz popular around the world. Though the charismatic Armstrong (1901-1971) moved away from his hometown in 1922, he remains beloved. New Orleans’ municipal airport has been dedicated to him and a bronze statue of the trumpeter reigns over a park named in his honor. Armstrong Park, located in the Treme neighborhood, is the site of numerous festivals and is home to the Mahalia Jackson Theater, a performance venue that pays tribute to the New Orleans gospel legend. Within Armstrong Park’s gates is an area called Congo Square that holds a significant place in New Orleans music. It was there, on Sunday afternoons, slaves were allowed to retain their African drumming and dancing traditions. Those vibrations can be heard today in the unique Mardi Gras Indian rhythms and ultimately in jazz itself. Just a block from the park, the Backstreet Cultural Museum celebrates the Mardi Gras Indians, jazz funerals and brass band-led social aid and pleasure club parades.


Contenu

Lithic stage Edit

The Dalton Tradition is a Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic projectile point tradition, appearing in much of Southeast North America around 8500–7900 BC.

Archaic period Edit

During the Archaic period, Louisiana was home to the earliest mound complex in North America and one of the earliest dated complex constructions in the Americas. The Watson Brake site is an arrangement of human-made mounds located in the floodplain of the Ouachita River near Monroe in northern Louisiana. It has been dated to about 3400 BC. The site appears to have been abandoned about 2800. [1]

By 2200, during the Late Archaic period the Poverty Point culture occupied much of Louisiana and was spread into several surrounding states. Evidence of this culture has been found at more than 100 sites, including the Jaketown Site near Belzoni, Mississippi. The largest and best-known site is near modern-day Epps, Louisiana at Poverty Point. The Poverty Point culture may have hit its peak around 1500, making it the first complex culture, and possibly the first tribal culture, not only in the Mississippi Delta but in the present-day United States. Its people were in villages that extended for nearly 100 miles across the Mississippi River. [2] It lasted until approximately 700 BCE.

Woodland period Edit

The Poverty Point culture was followed by the Tchefuncte and Lake Cormorant cultures of the Tchula period, local manifestations of Early Woodland period. These descendant cultures differed from Poverty Point culture in trading over shorter distances, creating less massive public projects, completely adopting ceramics for storage and cooking. The Tchefuncte culture were the first people in Louisiana to make large amounts of pottery. Ceramics from the Tchefuncte culture have been found in sites from eastern Texas to eastern Florida, and from coastal Louisiana to southern Arkansas. [3] These cultures lasted until 200 AD.

The Middle Woodland period started in Louisiana with the Marksville culture in the southern and eastern part of the state [4] and the Fourche Maline culture in the northwestern part of the state. The Marksville culture takes its name from the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana. These cultures were contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of Ohio and Illinois, and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network.

At this time populations became more sedentary and began to establish semi-permanent villages and to practice agriculture, [5] planting various cultigens of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The populations began to expand, and trade with various non-local peoples also began to increase. Trade with peoples to the southwest brought the bow and arrow [6] An increase in the hierarchical structuring of their societies began during this period, although it is not clear whether it was internally developed or borrowed from the Hopewell. The dead were treated in increasingly elaborate ways, as the first burial mounds are built at this time. [5] Political power begins to be consolidated the first platform mounds and ritual centers were constructed as part of the development of a hereditary political and religious leadership. [5]

By 400 AD in the eastern part of the state, the Late Woodland period had begun with the Baytown and Troyville cultures (named for the Troyville Earthworks in Jonesville, Louisiana), and later the Coles Creek culture. Archaeologists have traditionally viewed the Late Woodland as a time of cultural decline after the florescence of the Hopewell peoples. Late Woodland sites, with the exception of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast, tend to be small when compared with Middle Woodland sites. Although settlement size was small, there was an increase in the number of Late Woodland sites over Middle Woodland sites, indicating a population increase. These factors tend to mark the Late Woodland period as an expansive period, not one of a cultural collapse. [7] Where the Baytown peoples began to build more dispersed settlements, the Troyville people instead continued building major earthwork centers. [8] The type site for the culture, the Troyville Earthworks, once had the second tallest precolumbian mound in North America and the tallest in Louisiana at 82 feet (25 m) in height. [9]

The Coles Creek culture from 700 to 1200 AD marks a significant change in the cultural history of the area. Population increased dramatically, and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity, especially by the end of the Coles Creek sequence. Although many of the classic traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested, by 1000 CE the formation of simple elite polities had begun. Coles Creek sites are found in present-day Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Texas. Many Coles Creek sites were erected over earlier Woodland period mortuary mounds, leading researchers to speculate that emerging elites were symbolically and physically appropriating dead ancestors to emphasize and project their own authority. [dix]

Mississippian period Edit

The Mississippian period in Louisiana saw the emergence of the Plaquemine and Caddoan Mississippian cultures. This was the period when extensive maize agriculture was adopted. The Plaquemine culture in the lower Mississippi River Valley in western Mississippi and eastern Louisiana began in 1200 AD and continued until about 1600 AD. Good examples of this culture are the Medora Site (the type site for the culture and period), Fitzhugh Mounds, Transylvania Mounds, and Scott Place Mounds in Louisiana and the Anna, Emerald, Winterville and Holly Bluff sites located in Mississippi. [11] Plaquemine culture was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture at the Cahokia site near St. Louis, Missouri. By 1000 AD in the northwestern part of the state the Fourche Maline culture had evolved into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. By 1400 AD Plaquemine had started to hybridize through contact with Middle Mississippian cultures to the north and became what archaeologist term Plaquemine Mississippian. These peoples are considered ancestral to historic groups encountered by the first Europeans in the area, the Natchez and Taensa peoples. [12] The Caddoan Mississippians covered a large territory, including what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeast Texas, and northwest Louisiana. Archaeological evidence that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present, and that the direct ancestors of the Caddo and related Caddo language speakers in prehistoric times and at first European contact and the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is unquestioned today. [13] Significant Caddoan Mississippian archaeological sites in Louisiana include Belcher Mound Site in Caddo Parish [14] and Gahagan Mounds Site in Red River Parish. [15]

Native groups at time of European settlement Edit

The following groups are known to have inhabited the state's territory when the Europeans began colonization: [16]

  • The Choctaw nation (Muskogean):
    • The Bayougoula, in areas directly north of the Chitimachas in the parishes of St. Helena, Tangipahoa, Washington, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Livingston, and St. Tammany. They were allied with the Quinipissa-Mougoulacha in St. Tammany parish.
    • The Houma in the East and West Feliciana and Pointe Coupee parishes (about 100 miles (160 km) north of the town named for them).
    • The Okelousa in Pointe Coupee parish.
    • The Acolapissa in St. Tammany parish. They were allied with the Tangipahoa in Tangipahoa parish.
      • The Avoyel, in parts of Avoyelles and Concordia parishes along the Mississippi River.
      • The Taensa, in northeastern Louisiana particularly Tensas parish.
      • The Adai in Natchitoches parish
      • The Natchitoches confederacy consisting of the Natchitoches in Natchitoches parish
      • The Yatasi and Nakasa in the Caddo and Bossier parishes,
      • The Doustioni in Natchitoches parish, and Ouachita in the Caldwell parish.

      Many current place names in the state, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (as Avoyelles), are transliterations of those used in various Native American languages.

      European contact Edit

      The first European explorers to visit Louisiana came in 1528 when a Spanish expedition led by Panfilo de Narváez located the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 1542, Hernando de Soto's expedition skirted to the north and west of the state (encountering Caddo and Tunica groups) and then followed the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico in 1543. The expedition encountered hostile tribes all along river. Natives followed the boats in large canoes, shooting arrows at the soldiers for days on end as they drifted through their territory. The Spanish, whose crossbows had long ceased working, had no effective offensive weapons on the water and were forced to rely on their remaining armor and sleeping mats to block the arrows. About 11 Spaniards were killed along this stretch and many more wounded. Neither of the explorations made any claims to the territory for Spain.

      European interest in Louisiana was dormant until the late 17th century, when French expeditions, which had imperial, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France lay claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico through Canada. It was also establishing settlements in Canada, from the Maritimes westward along the St. Lawrence River and into the region surrounding the Great Lakes.

      The French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region Louisiana in 1682 to honor France's King Louis XIV. The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi), was founded in 1699 by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a French military officer from Canada.

      The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to French territory in Canada around the Great Lakes. A royal ordinance of 1722—following the transfer of the Illinois Country's governance from Canada to Louisiana—may have featured the broadest definition of the region: all land claimed by France south of the Great Lakes between the Rocky Mountains and the Alleghenies [17]

      A generation later, trade conflicts between Canada and Louisiana led to a more defined boundary between the French colonies in 1745, Louisiana governor general Vaudreuil set the northern and eastern bounds of his domain as the Wabash valley up to the mouth of the Vermilion River (near present-day Danville, Illinois) from there, northwest to le Rocher on the Illinois River, and from there west to the mouth of the Rock River (at present day Rock Island, Illinois). [17] Thus, Vincennes and Peoria were the limit of Louisiana's reach the outposts at Ouiatenon (on the upper Wabash near present-day Lafayette, Indiana), Chicago, Fort Miamis (near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana) and Prairie du Chien operated as dependencies of Canada. [17]

      This boundary between Canada and Louisiana remained in effect until the Treaty of Paris in 1763, after which France ceded its remaining claims east of the Mississippi—except for New Orleans—to Great Britain. (Although British forces had established control over the "Canadian" posts in the Illinois and Wabash countries in 1761, they did not have control over Vincennes or the Mississippi River settlements at Cahokia and Kaskaskia until 1764, after the ratification of the peace treaty. [18] ) As part of a general report on conditions in the newly conquered lands, Gen. Thomas Gage, then commandant at Montreal, explained in 1762 that, although the boundary between Louisiana and Canada wasn't exact, it was understood the upper Mississippi above the mouth of the Illinois was in Canadian trading territory. [19] The French established an important and lucrative fur trade in the northern areas, which became increasingly important. It competed with Dutch, and later English merchants, across the northern tier for fur trade with the Native Americans. The fur trade also helped cement alliances between Europeans and Native American tribes. [ citation requise ]

      The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent settlement in the territory that then composed the Louisiana colony. The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas via the Old San Antonio Road (sometimes called El Camino Real, or Kings Highway)—which ended at Nachitoches—and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads. Sugar cane plantations were developed first. In the nineteenth century, cotton plantations were developed along the river. Over time, planters developed large plantations but also lived in fine homes in a growing town, a pattern repeated in New Orleans and other places.

      Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts. They were concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, from Louisiana to as far north as the region called the Illinois Country, in modern-day Indiana, Illinois and Missouri.

      Initially Mobile, and (briefly) Biloxi served the capital of the colony. In 1722, recognizing the importance of the Mississippi River to trade and military interests, France made New Orleans the seat of civilian and military authority. The Illinois Country exported its grain surpluses down the Mississippi to New Orleans, which climate could not support their cultivation. The lower country of Louisiana (modern-day Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana) depended on the Illinois French for survival through much of the eighteenth century.

      European settlement in the Louisiana colony was not exclusively French in the 1720s, German immigrants settled along the Mississippi River in a region referred to as the German Coast.

      Africans and early slavery Edit

      In 1719, two French ships arrived in New Orleans, the Duc du Maine et le Aurore, carrying the first African slaves to Louisiana for labor. [20] [21] From 1718 to 1750, traders transported thousands of captive Africans to Louisiana from the Senegambian coast, the west African region of the interior of modern Benin, and from the coast of modern Democratic Republic of the Congo-Angola border. French shipping records, in contrast to those of other European nations, contained extensive details of the origins of enslaved Africans taken onboard slave ships. Researchers have found that approximately 2,000 persons originated from the upper West African slave ports from Saint-Louis, Senegal to Cap Appolonia (present-day Ébrié Lagoon, Côte d'Ivoire) several hundred kilometers to the south an additional 2,000 were exported from the port of Whydah (modern Ouidah, Benin) and roughly 300 departed from Cabinda. [22]

      Gwendolyn Midlo-Hall has argued that, due to historical and administrative ties between France and Senegal, "Two-thirds of the slaves brought to Louisiana by the French slave trade came from Senegambia." [23] This assertion is not universally accepted. This region between the Senegal and Gambia rivers had peoples who were closely related through history: three of the principal languages, Sereer, Wolof and Pulaar were related, and Malinke, spoken by the Mande people to the east, was "mutually intelligible" with them. Midlo-Hall thinks that this concentration of peoples from one region of Africa helped shape the Creole culture in Louisiana. [23]

      Peter Caron says that the geographic and perhaps linguistic connection among many African captives did not necessarily imply developing a common culture in Louisiana. They likely differed in religions. Some slaves from Senegambia were Muslims while most followed their traditional spiritual practices. Many were likely captives taken in the Islamic jihads that engulfed the region from Futa Djallon to Futa Toro and Futa Bundu (modern Upper Niger River) in the early 18th century. [22] The inland territories of the African continent from which slaves were captured, were enormous. Commentators may have attributed more similarities to slaves taken from among these areas than the Africans recognized among themselves at the time. [24]

      France ceded most of its territory east of the Mississippi to the Kingdom of Great Britain after its defeat in the Seven Years' War. The area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain, along with the rest of Louisiana, became a possession of Spain after the Seven Years' War by the Treaty of Paris of 1763. [ citation requise ]

      Spanish rule did not affect the pace of francophone immigration to the territory, which increased due to the expulsion of the Acadians. Several thousand French-speaking refugees from Acadia (now Nova Scotia, Canada) migrated to colonial Louisiana. The first group of around 200 arrived in 1765, led by Joseph Broussard (also referrerd to as "Beausoleil"). [25] They settled chiefly in the southwestern Louisiana region now called Acadiana. The Acadian refugees were welcomed by the Spanish as additions of Catholic population. Their white descendants came to be called Cajuns and their black descendants, mixed with African ancestry came to be called Creole. Additionally, some Creole Louisianians also have Native American and/or Spanish ancestry.

      Many Spanish-speaking immigrants arrived such as the Canary Islanders of Spain, which are known as the Isleños and Andalusians from the south of Spain called Malagueños. The Isleños and Malagueños immigrated to Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. The Isleños settled in southeast Louisiana mainly in St. Bernard Parish, just outside of New Orleans, as well as near the area just below Baton Rouge. The Malagueños settled mainly around New Iberia, but some spread to other parts of southern Louisiana. [ citation requise ]

      Both free and enslaved populations increased rapidly during the years of Spanish rule, as new settlers and Creoles imported large numbers of slaves to work on plantations. Although some American settlers brought slaves with them who were native to Virginia or North Carolina, the Pointe Coupee inventories of the late eighteenth century showed that most slaves brought by traders came directly from Africa. In 1763 settlements from New Orleans to Pointe Coupee (north of Baton Rouge) included 3,654 free persons and 4,598 slaves. By the 1800 census, which included West Florida, there were 19,852 free persons and 24,264 slaves in Lower Louisiana. Although the censuses do not always cover the same territory, the slaves became the majority of the population during these years. Records during Spanish rule were not as well documented as with the French slave trade, making it difficult to trace African origins. The volume of slaves imported from Africa resulted in what historian Gwendolyn Midlo Hall called "the re-Africanization" of Lower Louisiana, which strongly influenced the culture. [26]

      In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an arrangement kept secret for some two years. Documents have revealed that he harbored secret ambitions to reconstruct a large colonial empire in the Americas. This notion faltered, however, after the French attempt to reconquer Saint-Domingue after its revolution ended in failure, with the loss of two-thirds of the more than 20,000 troops sent to the island to suppress the revolution. After French withdrawal in 1803, Haiti declared its independence in 1804 as the second republic in the Western Hemisphere.

      As a result of his setbacks, Napoleon gave up his dreams of American empire and sold Louisiana (New France) to the United States. The U.S. divided the land into two territories: the Territory of Orleans, which became the state of Louisiana in 1812, and the District of Louisiana, which consisted of the vast lands not included in the Orleans Territory, extending west of the Mississippi River north to Canada. The Florida Parishes were annexed from the short-lived and strategically important Republic of West Florida, by proclamation of President James Madison in 1810.

      The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) resulted in a major emigration of refugees to Louisiana, where they settled chiefly in New Orleans. The thousands of Haitian immigrants included many free people of color, whites, and enslaved Africans. Some refugees had earlier gone to Cuba, and came from Cuba in another wave of immigration in 1809. The free people of color added substantially to the Creoles of color community in New Orleans and white Haitian immigrants added substantially to the French Creole community of New Orleans. These immigrants enlarged the French-speaking community. [27]

      In 1811, the largest slave revolt in American history, the German Coast Uprising, took place in the Orleans Territory. Between 64 and 500 slaves rose up on the "German Coast," forty miles upriver of New Orleans, and marched to within 20 miles (32 km) of the city gates. All of the limited number of U.S. troops were gathered to suppress the revolt, as well as citizen militias.

      State of Louisiana Edit

      Louisiana became a U.S. state on April 30, 1812. The western boundary of Louisiana with Spanish Texas remained in dispute until the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, which was formally ratified in 1821, [28] The area referred to as the Sabine Free State served as a neutral buffer zone.

      With the growth of settlement in the Midwest (formerly the Northwest Territory) and Deep South during the early decades of the 19th century, trade and shipping increased markedly in New Orleans. Produce and products moved out of the Midwest down the Mississippi River for shipment overseas, and international ships docked at New Orleans with imports to send into the interior. The port was crowded with steamboats, flatboats, and sailing ships, and workers speaking languages from many nations. New Orleans was the major port for the export of cotton and sugar. The city's population grew and the region became quite wealthy. More than the rest of the Deep South, it attracted immigrants for the many jobs in the city. The richest citizens imported fine goods of wine, furnishings, and fabrics.

      By 1840 New Orleans had the biggest slave market in the United States, which contributed greatly to the economy. It had become one of the wealthiest cities and the third-largest city in the nation. [29] The ban on importation of slaves had increased demand in the domestic market. During these decades after the American Revolutionary War, more than one million enslaved African Americans underwent forced migration from the Upper South to the Deep South, two thirds of them in the slave trade. Others were transported by slaveholders as they moved west for new lands. [30] [31]

      With changing agriculture in the Upper South as planters shifted from tobacco to less labor-intensive mixed agriculture, planters had excess laborers. Many sold slaves to traders to take to the Deep South. Slaves were driven by traders overland from the Upper South or transported to New Orleans and other coastal markets by ship in the coastwise slave trade. After sales in New Orleans, steamboats operating on the Mississippi transported slaves upstream to markets or plantation destinations at Natchez and Memphis.

      With its plantation economy, Louisiana was a state that generated wealth from the labor of and trade in enslaved Africans. It also had one of the largest free black populations in the United States, totaling 18,647 people in 1860. Most of the free blacks (or free people of color, as they were called in the French tradition) lived in the New Orleans region and southern part of the state. More than in other areas of the South, most of the free people of color were of mixed race. De nombreux gens de couleur libre in New Orleans were middle class and educated many were property owners. By contrast, according to the 1860 census, 331,726 people were enslaved, nearly 47% of the state's total population of 708,002. [32]

      Construction and elaboration of the levee system was critical to the state's ability to cultivate its commodity crops of cotton and sugar cane. Enslaved Africans built the first levees under planter direction. Later levees were expanded, heightened and added to mostly by Irish immigrant laborers, whom contractors hired when doing work for the state. As the 19th century progressed, the state had an interest in ensuring levee construction. By 1860, Louisiana had built 740 miles (1,190 km) of levees on the Mississippi River and another 450 miles (720 km) of levees on its outlets. These immense earthworks were built mostly by hand. They averaged six feet in height, and up to twenty feet in some areas. [33]

      Enfranchised elite whites' strong economic interest in maintaining the slave system contributed to Louisiana's decision to secede from the Union in 1861. It followed other Southern states in seceding after the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. Louisiana's secession was announced on January 26, 1861, and it became part of the Confederate States of America.

      The state was quickly defeated in the Civil War, a result of Union strategy to cut the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi. Federal troops captured New Orleans on April 25, 1862. Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the Federal government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana under Federal control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress.

      Following the Civil War, much of the South, including Louisiana, was placed under the supervision of military governors under northern command. Louisiana was grouped with Texas in what was administered as the Fifth Military District. Under this period of Reconstruction Era, the slaves were freed and males were given suffrage. African Americans began to live as citizens with some measure of equality before the law. Both freedmen and people of color who had been free before the war began to make more advances in education, family stability and jobs. At the same time, there was tremendous social volatility in the aftermath of war, with many whites actively resisting defeat. White insurgents mobilized to enforce white supremacy, first in Ku Klux Klan chapters.

      In the 1870s, whites accelerated their insurgency to regain control of political power in the state. The Red River area, where new parishes had been created by the Reconstruction legislature, was an area of conflict. On Easter Sunday 1873, an estimated 85 to more than 100 blacks were killed in the Colfax massacre, as white militias had gathered to challenge Republican officeholders after the disputed gubernatorial election of 1872.

      Paramilitary groups such as the White League, formed in 1874, used violence and outright assassination to turn Republicans out of office, and intimidate African Americans and suppress black voting, control their work, and limit geographic movement in an effort to control labor. Among violent acts attributed to the White League in 1874 was the Coushatta massacre, where they killed six Republican officeholders, including four family members of the local state senator, and twenty freedmen as witnesses. [34]

      Later, 5,000 White Leaguers battled 3,500 members of the Metropolitan Police and state militia in New Orleans after demanding the resignation of Governor William Pitt Kellogg. They hoped to replace him with the Democratic candidate of the disputed 1872 elections, John McEnery. The White League briefly took over the statehouse and city hall before Federal troops arrived. [35] In 1876, the white Democrats regained control of Louisiana.

      Through the 1880s, white Democrats began to reduce voter registration of blacks and poor whites by making registration and elections more complicated. They imposed institutionalized forms of racial discrimination and also conducted voter intimidation and violence against black Republicans. The rate of lynchings of blacks increased through the century, reaching a peak in the late 1800s, but with lynchings continuing well into the 20th century. Blacks came out in force in the April 1896 elections, in areas where they could freely vote, to support a Republican-Populist fusion ticket that might overturn the conservative Democrats. Blacks were threatened by increasing talk about restricting their vote, and Mississippi had already passed a new constitution in 1890 that disenfranchised most blacks. Racial tensions and violence were high, and there were 21 lynchings of blacks in Louisiana that year, surpassing the total for any state. Returns from Democratic-controlled plantation parishes were doctored, and the Democrats won the race. The legislature "refused to investigate what everyone knew was a stolen election." [36]

      In 1898, the white Democratic, planter-dominated legislature passed a new disenfranchising constitution, with provisions for voter registration, such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, to raise barriers to black voter registration, as Mississippi had successfully done. The effect was immediate and long lasting. In 1896, there were 130,334 black voters on the rolls and about the same number of white voters, in proportion to the state population, which was evenly divided. [37]

      The state population in 1900 was 47% African-American: 652,013 citizens, of whom many in New Orleans were descendants of Creoles of color, the sizable population of blacks free before the Civil War. [38] By 1900, two years after the new constitution, only 5,320 black voters were registered in the state. Because of disenfranchisement, by 1910 there were only 730 black voters (less than 0.5 percent of eligible African-American men), despite advances in education and literacy among blacks and people of color. [39] White Democrats had established one-party rule, which they maintained in the state for decades deep into the 20th century until after the 1965 Voting Rights Act provided federal enforcement of the constitutional right to vote.

      In the notable 19th-century U.S. Supreme Court decision Plessy c. Ferguson (1896), the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. The lawsuit, based on restricted seating in interstate passenger trains, was brought from Louisiana with strong support from the Creoles of color community in New Orleans: Plessy was one. Separation through segregation, however, resulted everywhere in lesser services and facilities for blacks.

      From July 24–27, 1900, New Orleans erupted in a white race riot after Robert Charles, an African-American laborer, fatally shot a white police officer during an altercation. He escaped and during and after the manhunt for him, whites rampaged through the city attacking other blacks and burning down two black schools. A total of 28 people died, including Charles, and more than 50 were wounded. Most of the casualties were black. The riot received national attention and ended only with intervention by state militia. [40]

      As a result of disfranchisement, African Americans in Louisiana essentially had no representation as they could not vote, they could not participate in juries or in local, state or federal offices. As a result, they suffered inadequate funding for schools and services, and lack of attention to their interests and worse in the segregated state. They continued to build their own lives and institutions.

      In 1915, the Supreme Court struck down the grandfather clause in its ruling in Guinn v. United States. Although the case originated in Oklahoma, Louisiana and other Southern states had used similar clauses to exempt white voters from literacy tests. State legislators quickly passed new requirements for potential voters to demonstrate "understanding," or reading comprehension, to official registrars. Administered subjectively by whites, in practice the understanding test was used to keep most black voters off the rolls. By 1923, Louisiana established the all-white primary, which effectively shut out the few black voters from the Democratic Party, the only competitive part of elections in the one-party state. [41]

      In the middle decades of the 20th century, thousands of African Americans left Louisiana in the Great Migration north to industrial cities. The boll weevil infestation and agricultural problems had cost sharecroppers and farmers their jobs, and continuing violence drove out many families. The mechanization of agriculture had reduced the need for many farm laborers. They sought skilled jobs in the burgeoning defense industry in California in the 1940s, better education for their children, and living opportunities in communities where they could vote, as well as an escape from southern violence. [42]

      During some of this period, Louisiana accepted Catholic orphans in an urban resettlement program organized in New York City. Opelousas was a destination for at least three of the Orphan Trains which carried orphan children out of New York from 1854 to 1929. It was the heart of a traditional Catholic region of French, Spanish, Acadian, African and French West Indian heritage and traditions. Families in Louisiana took in more than 2,000 mostly Catholic orphans to live in rural farming communities. The city of Opelousas is constructing an Orphan Train Museum (second in the nation) in an old train depot located in Le Vieux Village in Opelousas. The first museum dedicated to the Orphan Train children is located in Kansas.

      During some of the Great Depression, Louisiana was led by Governor Huey Long. He was elected to office on populist appeal. Though popular for his public works projects, which provided thousands of jobs to people in need, and for his programs in education and increased suffrage for poor whites, Long was criticized for his allegedly demagogic and autocratic style. He extended patronage control through every branch of Louisiana's state government. Especially controversial were his plans for wealth redistribution in the state. Long's rule ended abruptly with his assassination in the state capitol in 1935.

      Mobilization for World War II created defense industry jobs in the state, attracting thousands of rural black and white farmers into the cities to obtain such employment. However, tens of thousands of black workers left the state in the Second Great Migration for the North and West Coast to seek skilled jobs and better pay in the defense industry outside the South, better education for themselves and their children, and living opportunities in communities where they could vote. [43]

      Although Long removed the poll tax associated with voting, the all-white primaries were maintained through 1944, until the Supreme Court struck them down in Smith v. Allwright. Through 1948 black people in Louisiana continued to be essentially disfranchised, with only 1% of those eligible managing to vote. [44] Schools and public facilities continued to be segregated.

      State legislators created other ways to suppress black voting, but from 1948 to 1952, it crept up to 5% of those eligible. Civil rights organizations in New Orleans and southern parishes, where there had been a long tradition of free people of color before the Civil War, worked hard to register black voters.

      In the 1950s the state created new requirements for a citizenship test for voter registration. Despite opposition by the States' Rights Party, downstate black voters began to increase their rate of registration, which also reflected the growth of their middle classes. Gradually black voter registration and turnout increased to 20% and more, but it was still only 32% by 1964, when the first civil rights legislation of the era was passed. [45] The percentage of black voters ranged widely in the state during these years, from 93.8% in Evangeline Parish to only 1.7% in Tensas Parish, for instance. [46]

      Patterns of Jim Crow segregation against African Americans still ruled in Louisiana in the 1960s. Because of the Great Migration of blacks to the north and west, and growth of other groups in the state, by 1960 the proportion of African Americans in Louisiana had dropped to 32%. The 1,039,207 black citizens were adversely affected by segregation and efforts at disfranchisement. [47] African Americans continued to suffer disproportionate discriminatory application of the state's voter registration rules. Because of better opportunities elsewhere, from 1965 to 1970, blacks continued to migrate from Louisiana, for a net loss of more than 37,000 people. During the latter period, some people began to migrate to cities of the New South for opportunities. [48]

      The disfranchisement of African Americans did not end until their leadership and activism throughout the South during the Civil Rights Movement gained national attention and Congressional action. This led to securing passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, with President Lyndon Johnson's leadership as well. By 1968 almost 59% of eligible-age African Americans had registered to vote in Louisiana. Contemporary rates for African-American voter registration and turnout in the state are above 70%, demonstrating the value they give it, a higher rate of participation than for African-American voters outside the South. [46]

      In August 2005, New Orleans and many other low-lying parts of the state along the Gulf of Mexico were hit by the catastrophic Hurricane Katrina. It caused widespread damage due to breaching of levees and large-scale flooding of more than 80% of the city. Officials issued warnings to evacuate the city and nearby areas, but tens of thousands of people, mostly African Americans, had stayed behind, some stranded, and suffered through the damage of the widespread flood waters.

      Cut off in many cases from healthy food, medicine or water, or assembled in public spaces without functioning emergency services, more than 1500 people in New Orleans died in the aftermath. Government at all levels had failed to prepare adequately despite severe hurricane warnings, and emergency responses were slow. The state faced a humanitarian crisis stemming from conditions in many locations and the large tide of evacuating citizens, especially the city of New Orleans. Aujourd'hui, la Louisiane se développe dans plusieurs nouvelles industries, notamment le cinéma et la technologie. La Nouvelle-Orléans a récemment remporté le titre de ville à la croissance la plus rapide des États-Unis et d'Hollywood du Sud.


      Voir la vidéo: Metropoles du monde La Nouvelle Orleans


Commentaires:

  1. Ceallach

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  3. Echa

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  5. Aineislis

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  7. L'angley

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